This page gives a basic overview of damage-related concepts as well as calculations on how damage is inflicted and resisted in Sacred 2. More in-depth information can be found by visiting the page for each sub-topic.
There are five elements used which involve damage:
Damage is calculated separately for each. It is important to understand resistances and how they are applied to damage. Each weapon or spell that inflicts injury delivers some combination of these five damage types; perhaps all physical, perhaps half fire and half magic. In the discussion below, any reference to damage applies to any or all of the types separately. For example, physical damage and poison damage are each calculated using their respective damage and resistance values, then once computed, the two types are added to arrive at the final figure.
Damage is directly resisted by Armor values. Just as every player and opponent has a damage value for any of the five elements, they also have a corresponding armor value which directly counteracts or "resists" any of the five damage types. The player gains primarily Physical armor through equipping Armor-type items. Armor for the remaining four elements primarily comes from equipping relics.
Damage Mitigation is an extremely important aspect in Sacred 2. This powerful modifier causes a certain percentage of the damage a character takes to be completely omitted before any other damage calculations begin.
If the target has a buff or Combat Art that can reflect damage, this is checked to see whether it's successful. If it is successful, the target takes 0 damage and the damage calculation is run for the aggressor (theoretically this should mean that the damage could bounce back & forth if both the target and aggressor have high % chance to reflect).
Energy Shields have 3 statistics regarding damage:
In Sacred 2, armor resistances (like damage) are an absolute figure, for example, 500, not 50%. They reduce damage by the following formula:
damage taken = damage dealt * (damage dealt / (damage dealt + resistance))
So if the resistance is the same as the damage dealt, the target will take 1/2 of the damage (500 * (500 / (500+500)) = 250 damage taken). If the resistance is twice the damage dealt, the target take 1/3 of that. As previously mentioned, this damage calculation is run for each resistance separately and then summed up and a few other steps are taken and the end result is removed from the target's health.
Damage calculation from start to end (assuming a successful to-hit check is made):
1) Resistance is applied with the above formula.
2) Damage reduction is applied. This can come in several forms, either from item mods (conjecture), skills (Toughness & Warding Energy Lore if the player is using an energy shield) and Combat Arts (the Temple Guardian's T-energy Shroud & the Seraphim's Warding Energy/Divine Protection)
2a) If the player is using an energy shield (T-energy Shroud & Warding Energy/Divine Protection), some or all of the remaining damage will be taken off the shield energy and the rest will be taken from the target's health. T-energy Shroud takes 60% of incoming damage to the shield (therefore only 40% is applied to the Temple Guardian's health), Warding Energy takes 50% of incoming damage to the shield & Divine Protection takes 100% (therefore it grants immunity from damage until the shield energy runs out or the CA ends).
3) Remaining damage is applied to the target's health.